February 22, 2017

A grammar and dictionary of the Timucua language by Julian Granberry

By Julian Granberry

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As he points out, attempts have been made to connect Timucua genetically to a wide range of North and South American languages, all to no avail. Even a cursory examination of Timucua language data 14 THE TIMUCUA LANGUAGE makes it abundantly clear that one is dealing with an unusual system. Lexically an isolate, it nonetheless contains a fairly large number of lexical items stemming from several quite readily discernible sources. Grammatically it also fits a well-known areal model in a single part of the Americas and conforms especially well to one segment of that model still in existence today.

Augustine in the south and as far west as the east banks of the S1. Johns River, was the dominant dialect of the Eastern Timucua (Deagan 1978:92). The Timucua dialect proper was the dominant dialect of the Western Timucua, to the west of the St. Johns (Milanich 1978:62). Pareja's division reflects our current archaeological definition of Eastern vs. Western Timucua sub-cultural differences (Milanich 1978, Deagan 1978). Dialects and tribal-political entities may be correlated as follows: TABLE 3 DIALECTS & TRIBAL/POLITICAL UNITS DIALECT Acuera Agua Salada Agua Fresca hafi Mocama Oconi Potano Tawasa Timucua Tucururu Yufera UNIT Acuera Coastal Saturiwa Agua Dulce Icafui/Cascange, Yui (Ibi) Tacatacuru, Saturiwa Oconi (not a unit) Yustaga, Potano, Ocale ?

Such a process can, of course, take many forms. one usually sees large-scale relexification, as in the case of AngloSaxon after the Norman Conquest of 1066. If total military subjugation and fragmentation of the non-dominant population is involved, as was the case in the Atlantic slave trade, almost total relexification and large-scale grammatical restructuring of the non-dominant language(s) usually occurs, the Caribbean Creoles serving as the classic case. If contact between cultures is largely economic, without extensive military or political domination on the part of one of the participants, and the economic adventurers are relatively few in number, as in the case of the development of Swahili, the basic lexicon of the less dominant language tends 16 THE TIMUCUA LANGUAGE to remain largely intact but with lexical.

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