By Frederick Copleston
Conceived initially as a significant presentation of the improvement of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A historical past Of Philosophy has journeyed a long way past the modest function of its writer to common acclaim because the most sensible historical past of philosophy in English.
Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of giant erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate in regards to the lifestyles of God and the opportunity of metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient vitamin of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with such a lot of history's nice thinkers used to be diminished to simplistic caricatures. Copleston got down to redress the incorrect via writing a whole historical past of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and highbrow pleasure -- and person who provides complete position to every philosopher, offering his concept in a fantastically rounded demeanour and exhibiting his hyperlinks to those that went prior to and to people who got here after him.
The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a heritage of philosophy that's not going ever to be passed. proposal journal summed up the overall contract between students and scholars alike while it reviewed Copleston's A historical past of Philosophy as "broad-minded and aim, finished and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we won't suggest [it] too highly."
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Extra resources for A History of Philosophy, Volume 3: Late Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy: Ockham, Francis Bacon, and the Beginning of the Modern World
K. , I, 14. '1 As intuitive knowledge precedes abstractive knowledge, according to Ockham, we can say, using a later language, that for him sense-perception and introspection are the two sources of all our natural knowledge concerning existent reality. In this sense one can call him an 'empiricist'; but on this point he is no more of an 'empiricist' than any other mediaeval philosopher who disbelieved in innate ideas and in purely a priori knowledge of existent reality. 2. We have seen that for Ockham intuitive knowledge of a thing is caused by that thing and not by any other thing.
He could not do this if it 1 Quodlibet, I. 14. , 15, E. I Quodlibet, I, 13. , 6, 6. would involve a contradiction; but it would not involve a contradiction. 'l (ii) But God could not produce in us evident knowledge of the proposition that the stars are present when they are not present; for the inclusion of the word 'evident' implies that the stars really are present. '2 (iii) Ockham's point seems to be, then, that God could cause in us the act of intuiting an object which was not really present, in the sense that He could cause in us the physiological and psychological conditions which would normally lead us to assent to the proposition that the thing is present.
Moreover, intuition for him is not confined to intuition of sensible or material things. ' 'Aristotle says that nothing of those things which are external is understood, unless first it falls under sense; and those things are only sensibles according to him. I Prol. , I, 2. • Quodliblt, I. 13. , "7, 3. K. , I, 14. '1 As intuitive knowledge precedes abstractive knowledge, according to Ockham, we can say, using a later language, that for him sense-perception and introspection are the two sources of all our natural knowledge concerning existent reality.
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