February 22, 2017

ACI 318-11: Building Code Requirements for Structural by ACI 318 Committee

By ACI 318 Committee

The "Building Code necessities for Structural Concrete" ("Code") covers the fabrics, layout, and building of structural concrete utilized in constructions and the place appropriate in nonbuilding constructions. The Code additionally covers the power assessment of current concrete structures.

Among the topics coated are: agreement files; inspection; fabrics; sturdiness necessities; concrete caliber, blending, and putting; formwork; embedded pipes; development joints; reinforcement info; research and layout; energy and serviceability; flexural and axial quite a bit; shear and torsion; improvement and splices of reinforcement; slab structures; partitions; footings; precast concrete; composite flexural contributors; prestressed concrete; shells and folded plate participants; power overview of present buildings; provisions for seismic layout; structural simple concrete; strut-and- tie modeling in Appendix A; replacement layout provisions in Appendix B; substitute load and energy relief components in Appendix C; and anchoring to concrete in Appendix D.

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Inst. Elec. Engrs. Japan 69 (1949), in Japanese. Schelkunoff, S. " Wiley, New York, 1952. Smythe, W. " McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950. , and Y. Mushiake, Tech. Rept. Tohoku Univ. 14 (1949). D. 1»2 He measured hundreds of patterns on equiangular spiral antennas, but for some time the frequency-independent mode was obscured by a variety of spurious effects (which, incidentally, are always present in such measurements but they usually go undetected). When it became clear that the pattern did not change over a 20:1 band as it would for a conventional antenna, the measurement technique was refined to bring out the frequency-independent mode as strongly as possible.

2) For a self-complementary shape, a rotation of π/'2 produces the complement. As we saw in Ghapter 3, H for the complement is the same as E for the original apart from a constant. Specifically then, Εθ(φ) = Ζ0Ηθ(φ + —I (because it is self-complementary) = —ΕφΙφ + —I (in the radiation field) = TjES) [by Eq. 3) This says that E is circularly polarized. We can determine which sign is right from the known sense of the polarization. 4) and, by Eq. 5) 42 4 . SPIRAL ANTENNAS where ê and Ô are the unit base vectors.

Typically, when the wavelength is shorter than the arm length, the performance is practically frequencyindependent. The minimum radius needed is thus a surprisingly small fraction of a wavelength; for example, for an expansion factor / of 4 per turn the minimum radius is only about λ/4. The self-complementary shape shows up definitely as optimum from the point of view of pattern measurements; that is, the pattern is then most nearly symmetric around the axis. Even for / — 7, this symmetry is practically perfect: more gradual expansion tends to improve symmetry, of course.

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