February 22, 2017

Animal Science. Reproduction, Climate, Meat, Wool by N. T. M. Yeates

By N. T. M. Yeates

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Sample text

T h e high coagulating potency of the coagulating gland secretion ( M a n n , 1954) may be demonstrated by piercing the gland with a needle or scalpel, then, on some clean surface such as a microscope slide, rubbing the point into some squeezed-out fluid from the seminal vesicles; the fluid rapidly coagulates and forms a rubbery mass. A lesser degree of coagulation than that exhibited by rat semen, is found in the pig and in man. The average volume of each semen ejaculate varies greatly with species, the ram typically producing approximately 1 ml and the bull 4 ml, while the pig ejaculates u p to 100 times this volume ( 1 5 0 - 5 0 0 m l ) .

However, it gives valuable information and, since it does not require skilled help, is specially applicable in areas where veterinary services are unavailable. The method consists in fitting the bulls with a marking harness, as described in Chapter 2, and recording services and returns to service for each cow. Non-return to service may reasonably be taken to indicate pregnancy in a healthy herd. However it should be realised that persistence of the corpus luteum and absence of oestrus can be associated with various conditions other than pregnancy.

Including the cervix) of cattle and sheep, 36 hours seems to be about the maximum life of spermatozoa, though within the Fallopian tubes eight hours may be the limit (Edgar and Asdell, 1 9 6 0 ) . Within the female tract spermatozoa are at a higher temperature than in the male (see page 159) and they are actively motile in the seminal plasma and secretions of the uterus, so that they rapidly expend their energy. In some species spermatozoa are, however, viable in the female for a much longer period than in sheep and cattle.

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